The One Ring
The One Ring was created by the Dark Lord Sauron in the Fires of Mount Doom. After creating magical rings of power for the other races and kingdoms of Middle Earth, he made the One Ring, with the power to control the others, thereby controlling the land of Middle Earth. Wielding its power, Sauron was able to take over many lands. In first War of the Ring, Isildur, son of King Elendil, cut the Ring from the hand of Sauron with Narsil, on the slopes of Mount Doom. As a result, Sauron's body was destroyed, because his life was bound to the Ring, but because Isilidur chose not to destroy it in the Fires of Mount Doom and to keep it instead, Sauron's spirit survived. Isildur was later slain on the shores of Anduin, and the Ring was lost to the waters of the Great River. Two and a half thousands years later, Sméagol, one of the river folk, found the One Ring and took it into the dark caverns of the Misty Mountains. The evil power of the Ring warped his mind and disfigured his appearance, giving him the form of a wretched creature, and he was then known as Gollum. The Ring also gave him long life, and Gollum lived in those caverns for half a century.
Unexpectedly, Biblo Baggins stumbled across the Ring while lost in the tunnels. After his great journey to the Lonely Mountain, Bilbo returned home with his magic ring and held onto it for the next sixty years. Like Gollum, Bilbo had hardly aged a bit in that time, and his mind had begun to fall victim to the Ring's enchantments. When the wizard Gandalf, Bilbo's friend, researched further, he learned that his ring was the One Ring. Of course, by the time of this discovery, Bilbo had been convinced to leave the Ring with Frodo Baggins (his nephew and adopted son) when he left for Rivendell. Gandalf informed Frodo of this matter, and he decided to go to Rivendell as well to discuss the fate of the Ring with the wisest and most powerful of the lands of Middle Earth. After a great discussion in Rivendell about it, the many races that had convened formed the Fellowship of the Ring, a small company that was devoted to taking the Ring to Mount Doom so that the Ring could be destroyed forever. Despite the Fellowship of the Ring being fractured and the road arduous, Frodo and Sam succeeded in reaching Mount Doom together and destroying the One Ring, thus ending evil in Middle Earth for the rest of days. This ended the Third Age of Middle Earth.
 The Writing Upon The Band
The One Ring is described as being perfectly round and golden, in such a way that the bearer is caught in a trance by it. This is what Frodo thought when Gandalf told him to toss the Ring into the fireplace of Bag End. The Ring has an amazing resilience to heat, remaining cool even after being tossed into the blazing logs. When in fire, the Ring glows all around the band in the form of letters, written in the Black Tongue of Mordor.
The writing reads Ash nazg durbatulûk, ash nazg gimbatul, ash nazg thrakatulûk, agh burzum-ishi krimpatul!, which translated means One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to find them, One Ring to bring them all, and in the darkness bind them! This comes from the poem found in The Lord of the Rings books:
Seven to the Dwarf-lords in their halls of stone,
Nine to the Mortal Men doomed to die,
One to the Dark Lord on his Dark Throne
In the Land of Mordor, where Shadows lie.
One Ring to rule them all, One Ring to Find them,
One Ring to bring them all and in the darkness bind them,In the Land of Mordor, where Shadows lie.
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